Втората световна война

Stalin never had any intention of staying out of the conflict, he had long hoped that Germany and the Allies would fight themselves to the point of exhaustion, at which point he expected to be able to swoop and conquer the whole of Europe with a million paratroopers and state of the art tanks. Stalin abrogated the pact with Germany around 9 months after it was signed, and made a secret pact with Churchill

When France surrendered and with Britain virtually defeated in 1940, and Germany in complete control of Europe, Stalin’s only option was to mass his forces ready to storm Europe

At which point Hitler attacked them just days before the scheduled Soviet offensive with his heavily outnumbered and outgunned troops in a desperate surprise attack on the assembling Soviets, fortuitously catching them at the very point at which their own final preparations for sudden attack had left them most vulnerable, and thereby snatching a major initial victory from the jaws of certain defeat.

A brief timeline of the various pre-war negotiations and pacts is instructive

March 1939, Stalin unsuccessfully offers Britain and France a defense pact. The lukewarm response adds to Stalin’s perception that Britain and France were trying to provoke a German-Soviet war.

August 1939. French and English delegation in Moscow begin to lay groundwork for war against Germany, Stalin is stalling for time to make his own preparations. Stalin wants war in Europe. Hitler thinks a pact with Soviets will dissuade the allies should he attack Poland. Stalin knows that war between Germany and Poland will be used to involve the allies – providing ‘the perfect storm’ for a military showdown between capitalists and communists. Hitler’s War – What The Historians Neglect To Mention

August 15th 1939. Germany offers Soviets a mutual non-aggression pact

Hitler’s War – What The Historians Neglect To Mention

19th August; Stalin had already made the final decision on the coming Soviet attack on Europe “M Day”. Sweden also was targeted to be occupied and sovietized.

August 19th 1939. Stalin calls secret Polit Bureau meeting; “the question of war has reached a critical phase, the solution depends entirely on the position the Soviet Union shall take. We are convinced that, if we sign a treaty with France and England, Germany shall be forced to shy-away from Poland and to seek resolution with the Western powers – this way a war could be avoided – on the other hand, however, if we accept these proposals for non-aggression then Germany will certainly attack Poland and war with England and France will become unavoidable” “Under these circumstances we have a great opportunity to stay out of the conflict and patiently bide our time” “It is imperative for us that this war lasts as long as possible until both sides are exhausted, that’s exactly what’s in our interests.”
Hitler’s War – What The Historians Neglect To Mention

Immediately before the German-Soviet negotiations in Moscow there were Soviet-French-British negotiations in Moscow, and then it was the British and French who wanted a mutual assistance treaty with the Soviets, the British and French declared themselves agreed in principle that the Baltic States should come under Soviet control, only the Allied treaty was never signed, but Germany’s was.
German ambassador in Moscow, Graf von der Schulenburg had an appointment with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov who presented him, in question form, four articles for negotiation. Point 1: was the hoped for non-aggression pact. Point 4 was a joint German-Soviet permanent guarantee for the continued independence of the three Baltic States – Germany agreed with all four proposed articles.
At the next meeting Molotov said Germany could have its non-aggression pact, but that a secret supplementary protocol to it would have to be signed.
The German ambassador asked what was to be the secret protocol but got no answer.
Stalin invited von Ribbentrop to Moscow on the 23rd August 1939, who was only expecting to sign a non-aggression pact and the Baltic States guarantee and was surprised by an agreement including the secret supplementary protocol to divide Europe into two-spheres of influence

Hitler agreed because the immediate Polish question was increasingly volatile and von Ribbentrop signed eight-hours later around midnight.
Roosevelt had full details of the German-Soviet agreement, including the secret supplementary protocol when he entered the Oval Office that morning, and in spite of knowing that Poland was threatened by Germany and the Soviets Roosevelt kept this secret from the Poles and even let them know they should remain uncompromising on the Danzig question. The poles no doubt would have preferred to lose just their limited rights in Danzig rather than the whole of East Poland to the Soviets.
Gerd Schultze-Rhonhof on The War That Had Many Fathers

23rd August 1939; Foreign ministers Ribbentrop and Molotov sign the Nazi-Soviet Pact of Non-aggression and agreed to carve-up Poland between them. Concerned with Polish-Bolshevik attacks on German civilians in Poland, Germany was unable to wait any longer, though Hitler first makes yet another attempt to negotiate peacefully with Poland.
Poland was planning a lightning attack by 700 000 troops on Berlin. Warsaw was only waiting for a go-ahead sign from London.

England stalls for time, hinting at ‘possible polish readiness to negotiate’ while simultaneously telling Warsaw to maintain a bitter-stance against Germany.
For the sake of appearances on the international stage, England eventually makes ‘an appeal for negotiations – negotiations ‘yes’ but that concessions towards Germany are not expected.
Roosevelt has known for seven days that Germany agreed to Soviet demands for East Poland becoming a sphere of Soviet influence, but fails to pass this on to the Polish government who, if they had accounted this in their deliberations, would likely have preferred the loss of Danzig rather than East Poland to the Soviets. Hitler’s War – What The Historians Neglect To Mention

Poland refused an invitation to diplomatic talks in Berlin, for which Adolf Hitler had requested England and France to be mediators. Immediately, after his request Britain ratified a British-Polish Mutual assistance Pact on August 25, 1939. On that same day, Hitler received the French Ambassador Coulondre and stated: “Polish provocation has placed the Reich in a position that could not be allowed to continue.”
Referring to the French-Polish alliance, the Fuehrer added that he would not attack France, having renounced all Territorial claims against that country, but if France went to war for Poland, he would see it through to the finish; (ref: Encyclopedia Americana – 1953-Volume 29, page 556g “World War II”).
August 25, 1939, Hitler declares to British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson; “Polish provocations have become intolerable”

Stalin-Churchill Pact
The document is a detailed report on the implementation of an agreement between Stalin and the Soviet Union, Churchill and the British, and their Western Allies, made on behalf of Moscow on the 15th of October, 1939. The agreement is a document in which the Western powers, together with the Soviet Union, propose to defeat Germany as soon as the spring 1940, with possible military action.

Germany had captured a courier airplane on the 9th February, 1940, containing full details regarding the secret Stalin-Churchill Pact.
The officially “friendly neighbour Soviet and German governments” thus, unofficially became “enemies”, without any official “declaration of war”.

May 10, 1941 – Hess flight to Scotland to make peace in 1941.

March 7, 1940 “German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop’s letter to Mannerheim of Finland

[…] the Soviet Union, with which Germany has a valid ten-year “friendship pact”, and is the third Contracting Party to the Franco-German pact, but is now involved in an English conspiracy. As such, Germany now considers the Soviet Union, a rival and can no longer keep in force the Soviet-German agreements that, until now, held the German-Soviet policy binding.
When the Soviet Union, without the knowledge of the Germans, had changed their international policy, the German-Soviet cooperation is considered cancelled, without possible future sanctions. Germany now considers itself free of the contracts made with the Soviet Union, and will take measures for its own protection.

Stalin intended to force his way through the capitalist countries like an icebreaker and occupy the territories held by Hitler, later to turn all of Europe over to communism. The High Command of the Red Army had received orders to attack Romania on 6 July 1941. The commander of this operation was to have been Marshal Semyon Timoshenko. He was supposed to have gone to Minsk on 22nd June to prepare the attack, in which 4.4 million men were to have been used. But the Germans attacked first on 21st June 1941

The Chief of the Operations Staff of the OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht; High Command of the Armed Forces), Lieutenant General Jodl and the Chief of the OKW, Field Marshal Keitel, sent several letters to the Foreign Office and to the Reich Government between April and June 1941, in which, with increasing concern, and, finally, in almost imploring tones and with “the strongest emphasis”, they drew their attention to the fact that Soviet Russia “was conducting the most gigantic military deployment force in its history, directed against Germany” and that “a huge Soviet troop force” to the west could be set in motion “at any moment” [Sources: Jodl to Ritter, 1.3., 23.4., 6.5., 8.6., 20.6.1941 (attached: “Zusammenstellung der Grenzverletzungen durch russische Flugzeuge und russische Soldaten. Grenzzwischenfaelle Winter 1939/40”)

“The Hitlerite leaders struck with a preventive attack exactly two weeks before the planned action of our troops” Source: Army General S. Ivanov, Naczalnii Period voiny, 1974, page 212.

Colonel Petrov, on the anniversary of the victory on May 8, 1991, in a leading article of the official party organ Pravda: “As a result of the overestimation of our own possibilities and the underestimation of enemy possibilities, we drew up unrealistic plans of an offensive nature before the war. In keeping with these plans, we began the deployment of the Soviet armed forces on the western border. But the enemy preempted us. [odnako protivnik upredil nas]”
{Source: Petrov, B. “Tragediia i muzhestvo. K 50-letiiu nachala Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voiny” {= tragedy and valour. On the 5oth anniversary of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War}, in Pravda, 8.5.1991, p. 3].

Stalin’s War. Ernst Topitsch, Topitisch, contends that Stalin sought a European war and that Hitler’s invasion of Russia in 1941 preempted a Soviet attack.

IIgor Bunich discovered the name of Stalin’s attack plan. It was called Operatsiya Groza (Operation Thunderstorm) – Igor Bunich – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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